The Association of Polish Geomorphologists is a scientific-professional and not-for-profit society dedicated to the advancement of the science of geomorphology as well as representative Polish geomorphologists over the country and abroad. The Association was founded in 1991. Prof. dr hab. Stefan Kozarski from Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań was elected the first president of the Association of Polish Geomorphologists in 1992.
Primary activities of the AGP are the publication of scientific literature, the organization of scientific conferences, the creation of research grants, awarding of medals and awards, operation of task commissions, and other special activities like the protection of unique landforms. APG publishes journal/book series Landform Analysis where scientific papers from different fields of geomorphology are presented.
The Association of Polish Geomorphologists is a full member of the International Association of Geomorphologists. Representatives of APG are present in the Executive Committee of IAG/AIG and leads the working groups. Currently, Prof. Piotr Migoń is a member of the Executive Committee.
the President of Association of Polish Geomorphologists,
the Member of Polish Academy of Sciences,
the Member of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences,
the Member of New York Academy of Sciences,
the Member of Deutsche Akademie des Naturforscher Leopoldina.
In 1994 Professor Stefan Kozarski celebrates the fortieth anniversary of his scholarly work at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan. Professor Kozarski was born on 4 August 1930 in Katowice. This year he will be sixty five years old. Although he was born in Upper Silesia, his roots have been in Wielkopolska for a few generations. Therefore, it is not surprising that he decided to return here after the Second World War. When he came to Poznan, he started school at the famous Maria Magdalena Secondary School. Upon graduation in 1950, he began his close and long ties with Adam Mickiewicz University where he has marked his presence in science, teaching and organization.
In 1950 Professor Kozarski started to study geography at the Faculty of Science. Before graduation he was offered the position of deputy assistant at the Institute of Geography. In 1955 he was awarded the title of master of arts in physical geography by the Faculty of Biology and Earth Sciences. Shortly before graduation, he was employed at the Chair of Physical Geography, first as assistant and then as senior assistant. In 1961 the Faculty Council awarded Professor Kozarski the degree of doctor in natural sciences on the basis of his dissertation entitled Recession of the last ice-sheet from the northern part of Gniezno Pleistocene Plateau and the formation of the ice-marginal valley of the rivers Notec and Warta (in Polish). Professor Kozarski continued his scholarly work and in 1965 he earned his post-doctoral degree (doktor habilitowany) on the basis of a dissertation entitled The problem of the outflow way of Pradolina waters from the western part of the Notec-Warta Pradolina (in Polish). In 1965 the Minister of Education appointed him to the position of docent (associate professor). In 1972 Professor Kozarski became assistant professor and in 1978 he became full professor of geographic sciences. In 1989 the Faculty Council of the Faculty of Geographic and Geological Sciences nominated Professor Kozarski as correspondent member of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Since the early days of his work at Adam Mickiewicz University, Professor Stefan Kozarski has been primarily involved in scholarly work. His studies were conducted in Wielkopolska and Western Pomerania and the adjacent areas of East Germany. As a member of scientific expeditions, he explored the forelands and marginal zones of the Sidujökull (Iceland), Hansa, Gas and Werenskiolda (Spitsbergen) glaciers. He also investigated the subtropical areas of the karst in south-eastern China. His interests in China also included glacial and periglacial problems. Results of Professor Kozarski’s studies were published in a very great number of publications: 265 studies, articles, notes, reviews, reports and memoirs.
The analysis of Professor Kozarski’s scholarly achievements helps identify his research interests. Among them, priority should be given to the analysis of the relief and glacial, pleistocene and modern processes. These include problems of the genesis of end moraines, subglacial channels, pradolina and drainage systems of ice-sheets, kames, development of ice-corred moraine, deglaciation mechanisms, sedimentation models of marginal zones of the ice-sheet and forms connected with them. Detailed investigations helped him reconstruct the recession process of the last ice-sheet in north-eastern Wielkopolska and discover the early phases of the Torun-Eberswalde Pradolina. Professor Stefan Kozarski rejected the old view of German scientists, particularly those voiced by P. Woldstedt about the so-called Kolmarer Stadium or Kolmarer Staffel. Professor Kozarski solved the problem of water outflow from the Torun-Eberswalde Pradolina, discussed in the geological-geomorphological literature for over 70 years. He expounded the role of the fluvial factor in the creation of this form. He abolished the concept about the great role of dead ice and tectonic assumptions in the formation of valley-like gaps in the pradolina. In 1961 he presented his views on the role of the climatic factor in the formation of the system of pradolina terraces.
Analysis of the morphology of glacial channels present in the Polish and German Lowland made by Professor Kozarski proved that the concept of the exegetic genesis of these forms postulated by P. Woldstedt was unfounded.
Professor Kozarski spoke many times on the genesis of end moraines. His most valuable article on end moraines On the origin of the Chodziez End Moraine was published in Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polska Zachodnia (Physiographic investigations of western Poland) in 1959. Professor Kozarski pointed out to the role of the ice-sheet playing in the formation of glaciotectonic disturbances. The value of this work was emphasized by the publisher of the English language version of the article (published in Cold Climate Landforms ed. by David J.A. Evans 1994) who said that …Kozarski’s work (1959) outdistanced his time and built foundations for early observations of glaciotectonically formed end moraines, started by K. Gripp at Spitsbergen and Europe. And further on …Kozarski’s work is also an excellent review of studies on glaciotectonics up to 1959, most of which were overlooked.
The investigations of the Sidujökull foreland, conducted jointly with J. Szupryczynski, helped to determine the course of deglaciation in this area. The investigations also included analysis of contemporary geomorphological processes occurring in the marginal zone of the glacier. These investigations helped to formulate a general concept of ablation cones and provided new evidence to help solve the problem of developmental phases of ice-cored moraines and internal structure of fluted moraines.
Recently Professor Kozarski’s interest in glacial problems was focused on developing a methodology of their investigation. He designed depositional models of ice-sheet marginal zones which can be used as the basis for the proper morphogenetic and paleogeographic interpretation of processes occurring at the front of the melting Vistulian ice-sheet. These problems form part of the research problem sponsored by the State Committee for Scientific Research entitled Deglaciation of north-western Poland: conditions and transformation of the geosystem (~20 ka –> 10 ka BP).
Glacial problems are closely related to periglacial problems. Professor Kozarski also addressed the latter. He was particularly attracted to the fossil structures, periglacial deposits and geomorphological traces of periglacial processes in early glacial areas. Professor Kozarski also investigated the oriented icing depression seen in the morphology of the proximal parts of outwashes after syngenetic icing depression melted away. The genesis of these forms was explained in this way after comparative investigations conducted in Spitsbergen. The concept was used to explain identical or similar phenomena in Great Britain, Denmark and Germany.
Professor Kozarski thinks that the presence of frost structures and geomorphological traces of periglacial processes prove the existence of long term permafrost in the area in question as late as Late Vistulian. The convincing arguments presented in Traces of the activity of Late-Würm periglacial processes in the Lower Odra and Lower Warta Region contradict the views of C. Troll, H. Poser and J. Büdel who thought that there were no conditions in the German-Polish Lowland to form long term permafrost after the last ice-sheet moved away. Professor Kozarski expounded the paleogeographic significance of periglacial structures in his investigations of geomorphological events in north-western Poland. Recently, he used air photographs, taken at an appropriate altitude and under certain ground humidity conditions, to discover and to undertake detailed morphometric analyses of the frost-cracs polygons.
Professor Kozarski’s investigations of aeolian forms and deposits resulted in many publications that appeared in Polish and foreign journals. The main emphasis was put on the structure and texture of deposits building dunes and aeolian cover sands and their stratigraphy and chronology. Professor Kozarski was the first in Poland to attempt determination of dune age based on documented palinological analysis of the dating of terrace levels at which aeolian forms occur (Dunes in the Notec ice-marginal valley near Czarnkow). Layers of loesses were discovered in the end moraine zone of the Pomeranian phase. As the stratigraphic situation of the deposits was defined, they were experimentally dated by the TL method (jointly with A. Bluszcz and B. Nowaczyk). The attempt did not produce definite results and is a warning for all investigators using these methods for chronostratigraphic purposes.
After a period of investigations aimed at the reconstruction of the outflow of fluvioglacial and fluvioperiglacial waters Professor Kozarski focused on studies pertaining to changes in the river bed patterns. His studies were conducted in the central part of the Warta basin. On the basis of careful interpretation of aerial photographs, detailed analyses of the deposits filling the paleobeds, he developed a procedure to investigate changes in river bed patterns. Palinological analyses of the biogenic deposits and radiocarbon datings (jointly with K. Tobolski and M.F. Pazdur) were the basis for the dating of events that occurred within the valley bottom.
The investigations helped discover the metamorphosis of brooks into meanders and the change of the planar geometry of meanders which result from climatic changes in late Vistulian and Holocene. The results, in the opinion of Polish and foreign experts, are outstanding on the European scale. Professor Kozarski’s work is often quoted by Polish and foreign geomorphologists.
The above investigations helped Professor Kozarski to discover and examine (jointly with B. Nowaczyk and K. Tobolski) the only site with biogenic deposits in north-western Poland, representing the Brorup and Odderade interstadials. The same team is investigating the Bolling site in Zabinko which permits a complete dating of the events described above at the bottom of the Warta valley near Poznan. Professor Kozarski is working on a synthesis of the Vistulian of the Wielkopolska Lowland that makes a reference to the chronostratigraphic diagrams of this cold terrace in north-western Europe. The value of this work was appreciated by Professor A. Srodon who said that: You excellently managed to present on forty pages a synthetic, ordered and balanced picture of Wielkopolska Vistulian. Not often do we get such an excellently written work. A similar opinion was voiced by Professor Z. Prusinkiewicz: On the first reading one is struck by the abundance of new facts. The logic of interpretation and boldness of synthesis is supported by excellent knowledge.
The results of Professor Kozarski’s scholarly interests and the investigations conducted jointly with members of his team were presented at many congresses, conferences, symposia, seminars and other scientific meetings. Many of such meetings were organized or co-organized by Professor Kozarski.
In 1961 Professor Kozarski was appointed secretary of the Pre-Congress Symposium on Marginal Forms and Deposits held in Poznan as part of the 6th INQUA Congress – Warsaw 1961. In 1974 he organized the National Holocene Symposium (jointly with S. Szczepankiewicz) and in 1977 the Polar Symposium in Poznan.
Special mention should be made of international symposia organized by Professor Kozarski: International Symposium Palaeohydrology of the temperate zone, Poznan 1981 (IGCP Project 158 A and B), 1st Polish-Swedish Seminar Environmental changes in Poland and Sweden after the maximum of the last glaciation (1988), International Symposium on Late Vistulian and Holocene Aeolian Phenomena in Central and Northern Europe 18-22 May 1990, Rogi, Poland (jointly with B. Nowaczyk) and International Symposium Last Ice-Sheet Dynamics and Deglaciation in the North European Plain, 4-9 May, 1992, Poznan-Berlin (jointly with M. Böse).
In addition to the seminars mentioned above Professor Kozarski organized or co-organized meetings of the Committee of Geographic Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Quaternary Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, National Conference of Geographers preceding the 2nd Congress of Polish Science on Prospects for the development of geographic sciences in Poland, Poznan 1972 (jointly with Z. Chojnicki) and a few others.
Concluding the part on research we must stress that Professor Kozarski likes team and interdisciplinary work. He encourages his disciples to conduct joint field observations. He introduces us to unknown problems and research area and transmits to us his profound knowledge and rich experience. On sites rich in geological information he thinks it necessary to cooperate with representatives of other disciplines. He is of the opinion that results of interdisciplinary research help to fully explain events recorded in geological profiles. Joint investigations are followed by joint articles. Examples of this can be found in the bibliography appended at the end of this publication.
Professor Kozarski has enormously helped students and young academics to pursue their career. His reviews and opinions on the work, research achievements and applications for scholarly degrees have always been very detailed and impartial. Professor Kozarski supervised 10 doctoral dissertations; three persons continued their scholarly career and earned the post-doctoral degree. Upon appointment to the position of professor, they were offered professorships at other universities. Some of Professor Kozarski’s disciples are continuing their work on the doctoral degree. Professor Kozarski reviewed 15 doctoral dissertations and 6 post-doctoral dissertations. Four times he was member of the committee of professorial nominations. Foreign centres also approached Professor Kozarski to prepare opinion on candidates for professorial nominations (3) and to review post-doctoral dissertations (3).
As a member of the Central Qualification Commission for Academic Staff affiliated with the Chairman of the Council of Minister and the Central Commission for Scholarly Titles and Scholarly Degrees Professor Kozarski prepared 120 opinions on professorial nominations (associate and full), post-doctoral degrees, adjuncts, doctoral dissertations.
At Adam Mickiewicz University Professor Kozarski has been very fond of teaching students. His ordered, well prepared and extremely interesting lectures attract lots of students who later sign up for his master’s courses. Although Professor Kozarski is a very demanding teacher, the atmosphere at his seminars is far from unfriendly. To date, 177 students of Professor Kozarski’s seminars have been awarded master’s degrees.
Professor Kozarski has also taught abroad. He was visiting professor at 28 foreign universities, lecturing and running seminars. He read many papers at congresses, symposia, conferences organized in Poland and abroad.
Since the beginning of his work at the Institute of Geography, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Professor Kozarski has been involved in editorial work. From 1956 to 1970 he was assistant to the editor of Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polska Zachodnia published by the Poznan Learned Society. From 1971 to 1981 he was member of the editorial board of this journal.
The need to present the scholarly achievements of the Poznan geographic community on international forum encouraged Professor Kozarski to launch a periodical that would publish articles in foreign languages. The first issue of Quaestiones Geographicae, edited by Professor Kozarski, and carrying articles written in English, was published in 1974 by the Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwerstytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza. 15 volumes and 3 special volumes appeared to date.
In 1979 Professor Kozarski initiated another periodical in English carrying articles about quaternary problems, Quaternary Studies in Poland, published by the Polish Academy of Sciences, Branch Office in Poznan, Committee of Quaternary Research. 13 volumes appeared to date. The last volume was published in a new format with a new graphic layout.
The above periodicals have become widely known – reviews of individual volumes appeared in Austria, Germany, Finland, Sweden, and Poland. The editorial board has invited articles from authors living outside Poland – Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, Ireland, Mongolia, Norway, Switzerland, USA, Yugoslavia, and the former Soviet Union.
Professor Kozarski edited two volumes of supplements to Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie with proceedings of international symposia Late Vistulian (Weichselian) and Holocene Aeolian Phenomena in Central and Northern Europe Bd. 90 and Last Ice Sheet Dynamics and Deglaciation in the North European Plain Bd. 95. Proceedings of the 1st Polish-Swedish seminar were published in volume 55 of Geographia Polonica, also edited by Professor Kozarski. Jointly with R. Domanski Professor Kozarski edited a book entitled Wojewodztwo poznanskie – zagadnienia geograficzne i społeczno-gospodarcze (The Poznan Province – geographic, social and economic problems) (PWN Warszawa-Poznan 1986, pp. 668). It would be extremely difficult to enumerate here all the books edited or co-edited by Professor Kozarski. However, mention must be made of Glacial deposits in North East Europe published in 1995 by A.A. Balkema (Rotterdam) Brookfield and co-edited with J. Ehlers and Ph. Gibbard. The book is an important part of earlier volumes on other regions of Europe.
Professor Kozarski often served as member of the editorial boards of a few Polish and foreign journals: Czasopismo Geograficzne (since 1974), Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie (since 1987), Springer Series in Physical Environment (since 1986) and Prace Komisji Geograficzno-Geologicznej of the Poznan Learned Society.
Professor Kozarski has devoted much of his time to the organization of scholarly life at different levels. He has held important positions, initially at the Faculty of Biology and Earth Sciences where he was deputy dean and then dean (1966-1972). From 1972 to 1981 he was pro- vice-chancellor for Science and Foreign Relations at Adam Mickiewicz University.
In 1967 Professor Kozarski organized a Department of Geomorphology at the Institute of Geography and has been its head to date. He was three times elected head of the Institute of Geography and contributed much to its expansion.
In 1973 Professor Kozarski was appointed member of the Central Qualification Commission for Academic Staff, affiliated with the Chairman of the Council of Ministers where he served till 1990. The community of geographers elected him to the Central Commission for Scholarly Titles and Scholarly Degrees where he served for one term of office (1991-1994).
When the State Committee for Scientific Research was established, the community of geographers elected Professor Kozarski their representative. In the Committee Professor Kozarski is a member of the Basic Research Committee, Team P-2, and chairman of the Geographic Section. He has held these difficult and responsible positions till the present day.
For many years Professor Kozarski has been a member of various commission and teams at the Ministry of Higher Education. He worked at the Commission of Ministerial Awards. He was deputy chairman of the Team for the Teaching of Geographic Sciences (1973-1982) and later member of the Team for the Teaching of Natural Sciences.
Professor Kozarski has also had close ties with the Polish Academy of Sciences. Since 1972 he has been a member of the Committee of Geographic Sciences. From 1984 to 1990 he was chairman of this Committee. For many years Professor Kozarski has been a member of the Quaternary Research Committee and acted as its deputy chairman from 1981 to 1984. Since 1977 Professor Kozarski has been a member of the Research Committee on Peace, Presidium of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In 1979 he organized a Quaternary Research Committee at the Poznan Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences and was its chairman for many years. In 1989 Professor Kozarski was elected member of the Presidium of the Poznan Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In recognition of his scholarly achievements, the Scientific Council of the Institute of Geography and Spatial Development of the Polish Academy of Sciences elected Professor Kozarski its member in 1972. He has been a member of this council till the present day.
Professor Kozarski is a member of the Poznan Learned Society, Polish Geological Society and Polish Geographic Society. In the latter from 1966 to 1969 he was a member of the Main Board and president of the Poznan Branch. In 1982 Professor Kozarski organized the Geomorphology Commission and was its president till 1991. Since 1983 till the present day, Professor Kozarski has been a member of the Main Board. In recognition of his merits to the development of geography, in 1987 Professor Kozarski was elected Honorary Member of the Polish Geographic Society. In 1992 Professor Kozarski founded the Association of Polish Geomorphologists and has been its president till the present day.
The extensive and varied scholarly, didactic and organizational work was recognized by state, local and university authorities, as well as the Polish Academy of Sciences. Professor Kozarski was awarded the Officer’s Cross of the Order of Poland’s Restoration (1979), Silver Cross of Merit (1969), Medals of the 30th and 40th anniversary of the Polish People’s Republic. The Medal of the National Education Commission awarded in 1976 is considered by Professor Kozarski the most valuable decoration of an academic teacher. Professor Kozarski was also awarded the Honorary Badge for Merits in the Development of the Poznan Province (1968), Honorary Badge of the City of Poznan (1974), and Honorary Badge for Merits in the Development of the Koszalin Province (1979).
Professor Kozarski has also got many individual and team awards and distinctions by the Minister of Science and Higher Education (1979), Minister of Basic and Higher Education (1966), Scientific Secretary of the Polish Academy of Sciences (1980, 1981), Department III of the Polish Academy of Sciences (1966), Poznan Province and the City of Poznan for 1968. He was honoured for his Didactic Achievements by the Minister of Science, Higher Education and Technology (1973) and Organization of the Didactic Process and Staff Education by the Minister of Basic and Higher Education (1970).
Professor Kozarski has also been honoured by the Chancellor of Adam Mickiewicz University (individual and team awards) for scholarly, didactic and organizational achievements.
Medals awarded by foreign universities are an expression of the high appreciation of Professor Kozarski’s achievements – Medal Universite de Liége (1973), Bronze Medal of Martin-Luther Universität – Halle/Wittenberg (1976) and Lajos Loczy Medal of the Hungarian Scientific Society. Professor Kozarski was appointed member of the New York Academy of Sciences (1980), Deutsche Akademie des Naturforscher Leopoldina (1987), Polish Academy of Sciences (1989) and Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences (1994).
Professor Kozarski’s achievements are enormous. He is still active in all the fields described above. We wish him all the prosperity for the years to come. We wish him many research achievements. After all, research achievements give Professor Kozarski the greatest pleasure.
(Quaestiones Geographice, Special Issue No. 4, October 1995)